Shout!: Tell us a little bit about yourself: what are you studying currently?

Sarah Mitchell: I’m studying Bioresource Engineering at McGill’s MacDonald Campus in St Anne (although I live in downtown Montreal). Because I’m at Mac I’m in the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Science instead of the Faculty of Engineering.

SH!: Have you always been in bioresource engineering?

SM: In my first year at McGill (U0 – for students entering from outside of Quebec, so those who haven’t done Cégep), I was in a general engineering first year program (in the Faculty of Engineering), in which I would declare an engineering major at the end of first year. However, after hearing about bioresource engineering, I was very interested in the program so I switched faculties to major in bioresource engineering.

SH!: When did you know that you wanted to be an engineer?

SM: Honestly… I don’t know if even right now I know that I want to be an engineer. I don’t know what I want in most aspects of life! But I knew in grade 11 and 12 that I enjoyed math and science, and I was good at math and science, and I wanted in some way to harness these skills and work towards combatting climate change, which is an issue I care about. This led me to pursue engineering, specifically bioresource. Having been in the program for three years, I am finding that as classes get more specific and I see what projects people are working on, I get more and more excited about the idea of being an engineer.

Sarah Mitchell's protest trek across Canada.

SH!: I know university is busy, but outside of academics, are you involved in anything else?

SM: Yep! I’ve been involved in a few areas, last year I was the environment commissioner at the student union, and since my first year I’ve been involved with Divest McGill. I also have done some theatre here and there, in first year I directed a play at the McGill Drama Festival and this past year I performed in two plays: “What the Fuck am I Doing Here?” and “When Five Years Pass”, both with McGill’s Tuesday Night Café theatre.

SH!: What have your experiences been like as a woman in STEM?

SM: My experiences have been varied, thankfully I have some great rad/feminist friends in engineering who I can talk to and share support with. Bioresource engineering is a little different than other programs, since the gender divide is about 50/50, which I’m super grateful for. In my downtown classes, though, there is definitely a more prevalent male presence. All my downtown engineering classes have had male teachers, who often only use the pronoun “he” which is infuriating. Boys often talk over women-identifying folks in group projects, and although I personally try to be very outspoken, it is hard for shyer women to have their voices heard. Additionally, the drinking culture of engineering, although fun, is very problematic in that one often hears homophobic/racist/sexist/transphobic and ablest slurs and chants. I do sometimes feel pressure to come up with better ideas and smarter comments than my male peers, to assert that I have a right to be here. It can be a tough fight, but I know that it is tougher for others that may experience other forms of oppression and who may not be as outspoken as I am. Sharing my experience with my peers who have had similar experiences though is always worth it, and also reminding the boys who say they are feminists to call out offensive behaviour and give space for women to speak. I also think one of the most important steps to be taken is hiring more women-identifying staff, because listening to old men all day can be pretty tiring especially when they bring their old sexist attitudes to the classroom.

SH!: I remember you mentioning that you’re a research assistant at McGill - can you talk about what your experience doing that? What were you researching, what was your role as an assistant?

SM: Yeah! Last summer I was working in the environmental engineering laboratory with Professor Dominic Frigon. In wastewater treatment, the effluent sludge can be anaerobically digested to produce biogas, however it requires high temperatures to do this effectively. Because of Montreal’s cold environment, I was studying the effects of using ozonation as a pre-treatment to the sludge to digest it in lower temperatures, while still harnessing the same amount of biogas. My role was to design and construct four bench top size digesters (my supervisor had already completed the project on a smaller scale) and compare the effects of different levels of ozone pre-treatment and temperature on the digestion of the sludge and production of biogas.

My experience really gave me a more accurate perspective on how research is carried out, and what is currently being developed in the global wastewater treatment community. I was working very independently over the summer, which I liked sometimes and was challenging sometimes. Because the project was in my hands, it was up to me to make sure things got done, although I found that I was lacking some of the background chemistry and biology knowledge. My experience did teach me a lot though, mostly in that it opened my eyes to what is possible and what I can actually accomplish, since before beginning my work I had mostly been told directly how to do any project or assignment, whereas in the research assistant environment I had to figure out the steps.

SH!: Are you continuing to work as a research assistant over the summer?

SM: No actually, this summer I decided to take a break from engineering and I’m working a bar which has been fun! I’ve also had some other side projects this summer: I’ve been taking a summer class, I was costume designing for a play, and I’ve been planning and fundraising for the bike trip.

SH!: THE bike trip? What are you referring to?

SM: We're biking across Canada to raise money for the Tsleil-Waututh, Coldwater, and Squamish First Nations to take Kinder Morgan to court.

SH!: Excuse me, what? Who even are you? That is so amazing?! What prompted you to do this? Why are you doing this? Sarah, I NEED ANSWERS.

Sarah and Alison Gu are biking together across Canada. Photo courtesy of, their website.

SM: But we're biking for SO. MANY. REASONS, but most importantly: to raise money for indigenous resistance against the Kinder Morgan pipeline. 

Canada is so often idealized as this “perfect” nation - we’ve got a sexy prime minister who is into youth and weed and multiculturalism, and a lot less fascism then the average western nation at the moment. BUT as we “celebrate” #Canada150, we must must MUST take a critical look at the behind the scenes of this country and the ongoing colonialism. Climate change means that pipelines can NOT be built, and to be honest, I think it’s pretty ridiculous that the same government can make all the parks free in celebrating nature, and in the next breath sign onto a destructive oil pipeline.

This summer, I want to spend a butt-ton of time thinking about these things the way I know best: biking for long hours and spending day after day outside in the (hopefully) sunshine. I'm super excited (and slightly terrified) for this trip, to challenge me physically and mentally, raise awareness of the ongoing inequalities and injustice within our country, and tangibly raise funds to stop a harmful pipeline, all while celebrating the beauty of Canada’s natural environment.

We’re biking from Ottawa→ Sudbury, taking the train from Sudbury → Winnipeg, then biking from Winnipeg → Vancouver. Check out our detailed itinerary here

SH!: That is AMAZING and I’m so excited to follow along with your trip! How are you funding this? I’m super on board with this. Do you need any help in any capacity?

SM: YOU CAN HELP!!! (and please do…)

  1. Alison is an AMAZING photographer and is sending 100% of the proceeds to the Pull Together campaign, giving you some absotootly gorgeous photos of our trip in return. Click on the website above to check them out! You can also donate directly to the campaign here
  2. Let us borrow supplies! We are currently in need of camping gear, bike tools, and other bike touring related supplies! Check out our list here (highlighted is stuff we’re trying to crowdsource) 
  3. Give us a shower and a warm place to sleep if we travel through your city! If you’ve got a home anywhere from Ottawa to Burnaby and we can try and coordinate something!

Sarah Mitchell and Alison Gu depart for their trip across Canada on June 24. 

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A young Yazidi student attends a class in the Newroz refugee camp in Syria, near the Faysh Kabur border with Iraq. May 18, 2015. Tens of thousands of mainly Yazidis have fled to Syria since Islamic State militants captured Sinjar and other northern Iraqi towns in August 2014. (Flavius Mihaies/Shout! News)

Children of Yazidi women raped by ISIS men banned from community

1. The offspring of Yazidi women captured, raped and impregnated by Islamic State fighters have been barred from joining the community in Iraq, the Media Line reported. Islamic State fighters murdered thousands of Yazidi men, forced young boys to join their ranks and abducted Yazidi women to use as sex slaves. Those children born to female captives have been the subject of fierce debate in the community, which recognizes children as Yazidis only if both parents are members of the sect.

2. Both prisoners Israel set to release, following the return of the body of Israeli soldier, ask not to be returned to Syria, Haaretz reported. One of the two, an accused drug smuggler, refuses to go back to Syria where he says authorities persecute him, while the other, a Fatah operative, requested to be placed in Hebron where he wishes to get married.

3. Astana process: Syria talks end without deal on key constitutional body. The Syrian government and armed opposition groups have failed to agree on the makeup of a constitutional committee during two-day talks in Kazakhstan that were led by Russia along with Iran and Turkey, Al Jazeera reported.

Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) fighters stand by a pick-up truck near the village of Baghouz in eastern Syria. February 11, 2019 (Reuters)

The stakes of Syria's gas shortage

Syria's acute gas shortage is a stark sign of the daunting challenges the country will face in post-war reconstruction. A step up in economic sanctions imposed by the United States are partly responsible for the crisis.

Details: A Shout! News source in Damascus describes unprecedented scenes of cars and people waiting for petrol in lines spilling into the streets. The wait has been counted in days with drivers leaving their cars in the line at night to sleep and coming back to take their spot in the morning. This energy crisis is even worse than what the country experienced during the war, the source says.

The big picture: The U.S. dialed up its sanctions against Iran and the Syrian regime lost access to supply from the oil field captured from the Islamic State by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF).

  • The Trump administration aims to drive Iran's oil exports to zero by ending sanctions waivers on May 2. It also asked the Sissi government in Egypt to close the Suez Canal to Iranian oil tankers supplying Syria.
  • Concurrently, the Syrian regime lost access to oil supplied by the Islamic State when the jihadist group lost access to oil field captured by Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) backed by American and coalition's airpower. It is unclear whether the SDF will resume supply to Damascus, which the U.S. will most likely oppose.
  • The source in Damascus does not exclude the Syrian government's role in exacerbating the gas shortage, as a mean to enrich those close to the regime.

So far, Iran found a way around the increased economic sanctions by supplying oil from Iraq through trucks at the Baghouz border crossing, Shout! News learned. Freed from the Islamic State last month by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), the village of Baghouz sits along the Euphrates River at the Iraqi border in eastern Syria. Iran is considering building a railroad on that supply route.

Questions? Comments? Feedback? Please email

Sri Lankan local people pray near to St Anthony Church on April 23, 2019 evening in Colombo, Sri Lanka. At least 321 people were killed with hundreds more injured after coordinated attack on churches and hotels on Easter Sunday rocked three churches and three luxury hotels in and around Colombo as well as at Batticaloa in Sri Lanka. Based on reports, the Islamic State group claimed responsibility for the attacks while investigations have shown that the attack was carried out in retaliation for Christchurch mosque shootings last month. Police have detained 40 suspects so far in connection with the suicide bombs, which injured at least 500 people as the blasts took place at churches in Colombo city as well as neighboring towns and hotels, including the Shangri-La, Kingsbury and Cinnamon Grand. (Atul Loke/Getty Images)

Islamic State 2.0: A global platform

Today's news roundup

1. The Islamic State relaunches as a global platform and the Sri Lanka bombings were a preview of its future, Charlie Winter and Aymenn al-Tamimi say in The Atlantic. In fact, Winter and al-Tamimi argue, the Islamic State has been ideologically strengthened by its failed proto-state, which the jihadi group claims was a way to build a global platform that would ensure the movement's future by mobilizing tens of thousands of supporters.

2. Syria's gas shortage has worsened. A Shout! News source in Damascus describes unprecedented scenes of cars and people waiting for petrol in lines spilling into the streets. The wait has been counted in days with drivers leaving their cars in the line at night to sleep and coming back to take their spot in the morning. This energy crisis is even worse than what the country experienced during the war, the source says.

3. Amnesty criticizes U.S.-led coalition's 'indiscriminate' actions in Raqqa, against the Islamic State, which killed about 1,400 more civilians than the U.S. military has acknowledged. Amnesty International produced names of more than 1,000 people reported killed from June to October 2017 in the northern Syrian city, NPR reported.

Questions? Comments? Feedback? Please email

Heatmap of allegedly recent Islamic State's attacks published by the jihadi's group supporters on messaging app Whatsapp. April 24, 2019 (Shout! News)

Heatmap of recent Islamic State's attacks

Under the rallying cry of baqiya ("remaining", in Arabic, one of the most common adjectives associated with the Islamic State, says analyst Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi), Islamic State's supporters on social media are circulating a heatmap of what they claim are the jihadi group's attacks in Syria, Iraq and neighboring countries in the last three months.

Note that it includes the Palestinian territory's Gaza Strip.

The militarily defeated group fans are also claiming there were other attacks outside the region, especially Africa.

Go deeper:

Israel's Syria map

Interview: "ISIS wives" want to go to Turkey instead of home

Fighters purportedly from the Syrian Democratic Forces' newly formed Armenian unit (Syrian Civil War Map)

Syrian Democratic Forces to announce an Armenian unit

Today's news roundup

1. The Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) will announce the formation of an Armenian battalion. The unit is to consist of 50 fighters, Massis Post, an Armenian-American community newspaper, reported. The region under SDF control in northern Syria includes an Armenian community.

The new unit's insignia features an Armenian National Flag (Red-Blue-Orange} and Mount Ararat:

2. Jordan-Syria ties stumble over fate of Jordanian detainees, Al-Monitor reported. The two countries exchanged parliamentary visits in what was seen as a positive sign of a warming of bilateral ties, late last year. This recent development reflects the reality that Jordanian-Syrian ties have a long way to go before normalization.

3. Islamic State kills regime fighters across Syria, Reuters reported. These attacks reflect that although the Islamic State lost its last territorial enclave in Syria at Baghouz near the Iraqi border last month to U.S.-backed forces, it still has fighters holding out in the remote central desert and capable of striking.

A U.S. Army base outside Manbij, ,Syria. June 21, 2018 (Flavius Mihaies/Shout! News)

Interview: Trump left a tripwire military presence in Syria

Michael M. Gunter, a professor of political science who has written extensively on the Kurds told Shout News in an interview that the small remaining American military presence in Syria serves as a tripwire to deter any hostile intents toward the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces in control of northeastern Syria.

Highlights from the interview:

  • "The U.S. will not leave the Kurds like Nixon and Kissinger did." American forces left in Syria serve as a deterrent should Turkey, Syrian regime forces and their Iranian allies backed by Russian airpower attempt to sweep through the territory that the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces control in northeastern Syria. A situation akin to the Cold War tripwire, where a small U.S. military force in Europe signaled America's commitment to an armed response to a Soviet attack.
  • A miscalculation in Turkey's high risk adventure in Syria could reverberate in President Erdoğan's presidency. While there are no serious contenders today, a Turkish military embarrassment by in Syria could create an opening and lead to President Erdoğan's removal from power.
  • "Syria's Kurds are much more noticeable today, and in a much better position than they were ten or twenty years ago, in a brighter position than they have ever been in modern times."
  • "Turkey is the power Syria's Kurds will need to get along with", despite a rhetoric that portrays Turkey "as evil" relayed by the media in the West. Historically, in the region nobody is 100% enemy with each other. Today's loss are tomorrow's wins. This long view of the conflict is largely absent in the media coverage of the war in Syria, but key to understand the conflict.

Go deeper: Syria's 2000 American troops: Strength is not in numbers

Syrian Pound exchange rates at a currency exchange office in Damascus, Syria. August 12, 2015 (Flavius Mihaies/Shout News)

Syria's Assad is at risk of winning the war but losing the peace

As the Syrian civil war enters its ninth year, the news media is abuzz with stories about President Bashar al-Assad's victory on the battlefield. Yet, Syrians in government-controlled territory are increasingly expressing discontent with the president as living standards in the country continue to deteriorate even as the conflict winds down, the Washington Post reported.

Why it matters: Syria's president is at risk of winning the war but losing the peace if he fails to address a crippling shortage of fuel and electricity, provide jobs for the men returning from the front lines, and stabilize the Syrian currency. These challenges are compounded by inefficiencies and corruption amongst his government.

What Syrians are saying:

A Damascus-based worker for a non-governmental organization in an interview for Shout! News claimed that Syrians feel they have been betrayed by their government. They acknowledge, however, that the central government's control of territory outside the capital has weakened due to the partial devolution of state and military power to local authorities as a measure to fight the war. Local warlords emerged as a result.

"Military men don't behave like military anymore," the man said, who spoke on the condition of anonymity. Access to public services, as water, has been privatized by local strongmen and offered for a fee, he complained. He mentioned the example of a village he visited recently where public access to water is now run by someone close to the local strongman.

"Today's living standards are worse than during the war," but Western countries' sanctions against the Syrian regime are also responsible for their deterioration, the man said.

Illustration: Shout! News Visuals

Programmatic propaganda in action in Syria's conflict: #OperationOliveBranch

The ongoing conflict in Syria blends conventional warfare with social media manipulation operations to influence public opinion, according to research.

The backstory: In January 2018, Turkey launched a military operation, code-named Olive Branch, in an around the northern Syria's city of Afrin.

Key findings: There is a social media manipulation dimension to Turkey's war in Syria. The Turkish state or pro-Turkish state elements sought to influence public opinion on the conflict, backing up the Turkish state message in a computer automated manner and orchestrated campaign connected with the Twitter hashtag #operationolivebranch.

The details: Research identified two ways the Turkish state or pro-Turkish state elements sought to influence audiences perception on Twitter.

  • Automated Twitter accounts that pose as journalist and political account: Two high-volume automated accounts, one that poses as a journalist/blogger @PelinCiftek, and the other a political profile AkPartiNet. At the time of the research these two accounts were tweeting at a rate of 465 tweets per day (on a seven day average) and sharing the same content from twenty two other accounts. These two accounts at first glance have nothing in common nor appear to be connected. Yet, research found they were operating in concert with the identical volume, timing and tweets themselves. These two accounts were created within one month of each other, and have nearly an identical tweet to like ratio, and following to follower ratio.
  • A network of automated amplifiers. These seemingly two unrelated (not directly connected) accounts are highly programmatic, and serve as the hubs of a tightly connected network that is amplifying the Turkish government message on the war in Afrin and other issues. This serves as an example of computation propaganda in action. Our research highlights how this network operates in a computer automated manner. Additional automated Twitter accounts amplifying the Turkish government's message about the war in Afrin and other issues. Research concluded these are likely government approved proxies or messengers (if not, it's highly improbable this content and network would exist) whose tweets are relayed by the two accounts above. At the time of the research it was noted that these ten accounts have a daily tweet average to classify them as cyborgs.

The big picture: Turkey's military operation in the conflict in Syria is the first invasion by Turkish ground forces into a sovereign nation since the Cyprus conflict in 1974.

Go deeper: A recent study by Oxford University shows widespread use of social media tactics by governments to shape public discourse and spread misinformation.

This analysis was first posted on Medium, including research findings and methodology.

A man standing in a church in Kobane, Syria. April 3, 2019 (Reuters)

Islamic State's violence drives Syrians toward Christianity

Today's news roundup

1. Christianity grows in Syrian town once besieged by Islamic State, Reuters reported, referring to Kobane, in northern Syria. The Evangelical movement is the beneficiary, not the traditional Eastern churches. Converts say the experience of war and the onslaught of the Islamic State claiming to fight for Islam pushed them to distance themselves from Islam.

2. Astana process moves forward: Kazakhstan will host new peace talks on Syria, backed by Iran, Russia and Turkey in effort to reach a political settlement for the conflict on April 25 and 26, The New Arab reported. The United Nations and Jordan are expected to attend as observers.

3. Gas shortage plagues Syria. U.S. sanctions are partly in blame, this thread on Twitter discussed. Yet, Reuters pointed to the halt in Iranian credit. Tehran is itself the target of U.S. sanctions reimposed since President Donald Trump withdrew from a 2015 nuclear deal between Iran and several world powers.

Lebanese Cardinal Bechara Rai, patriarch of the Maronite Catholic Church, and Syriac Catholic Patriarch Ignace Joseph III Younan share Christmas greetings on December 24, 2018 in Bkerke, Lebanon. (CNS photo/ Mychel Akl, courtesy Maronite Catholic Patriarchate.)

Lebanon's Maronite Church deplores U.S. recognition of Israeli sovereignty over the Golan

Roundup of top Syria conflict news - April 18, 2019

1. British taxpayers will pay for legal aid to Islamic State's bride Shamima Begum. The 19-year-old, who left east London in 2015, was stripped of her citizenship in February, after she was found in a Syrian refugee camp, the BBC reported. Ms Begum played an active role in the Islamic State's reign of terror as a member of the "hisba", which punishes those found flouting the group's laws on how to dress and behave, The Independent reported.

2. Associated Press published a map of the military campaign against the Islamic State from the group's greatest territorial gains in 2014. Gray shows areas occupied by the IS and allied groups.

3. Maronite bishops in Lebanon deplored the U.S. recognition of Israeli sovereignty over the Golan in a statement released at the end of the Bishops' monthly assembly, the Holy Land Christian Ecumenical Foundation reported.